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작성일 : 07-10-03 23:25
사도교부
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중국어 使徒敎父
라틴어 Patres Apostolici
영 어 Apostolic Fathers

비교적 후기에 나타난 신약성서 문헌과 시대가 같거나 또는 그 직후인 1-2세기초에 활동한 그리스도교 저자들을 말한다. 1672년에 출판된 코틀리에(J.B. Coetelier)의 ≪사도시대교부≫(Patres aevi apostolici)에서부터 이 말이 쓰이기 시작하였다. 사도교부는 예수그리스도를 체험한 12사도 및 그 목격자의 증언을 직접 전해들은 사람들로서, 사도들과 직접적인 접촉이 없었더라도 사도적 전통에 연결되어 있는 자들이었다. 이들은 그리스도와 가까운 시기에 생존하였고 후대인에게 복음의 원초적 모습과 복음선포 직후에 진전된 모습 및 그 변화된 양상을 비교적 선명하게 전하고 있다.

이들의 범위는 좁게는 로마의 글레멘스(Clemens Romanus), 안티오키아의 이냐시오(Ignatius Antiochiae), 스미르나의 폴리카르포(Polycarpus Smyrnensis)를 비롯하여 ≪바르나바의 편지≫의 저자, ≪헤르마스의 목동≫의 저자 등을 포함하고, 넓게는 ≪디오녜토에게 보낸 편지≫(Ep. ad Diognetum)의 저자, 최근에는 ≪디다케≫(Didache)의 저자까지 포함된다.

이들 교부들의 작품은 내용과 형식에 있어 신약의 서간편과 비슷한데 문체와 내용, 기술형식에 따라 이냐시오와 폴리카르포 같은 사목적 성격을 띤 것, 헤르마스와 바르나바와 같이 외경(外經)에 속하는 것, 그리고 ≪디오녜토에게 보낸 편지≫과 같이 다분히 호교론적(護敎論的)인 것으로 구분된다. 끝으로 이들의 저서들이 가진 특징을 요약해보면 이들 작품들이 씌어진 지역, 환경, 그리고 상황의 상이함에도 불구하고 이들이 일치된 신앙과 통일된 가르침을 주고 있다는 점, 그리스도의 재림이 임박했다는 것을 거듭강조하고 있다는 점, 그리고 그리스도 중심적이라는 점을 들 수 있다.

[참고문헌] K. Bihlmeyer and W. Schneemelcher, Die Apostolischen V ter, Tubingen 1956∼/ J.A. Fischer, Die Apostolischen V ter, Munich 1956/ E.J. Goodspeed, The Apostolic Fathers, New York 1950.

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